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Evolution, Complexity, Entropy, and Artificial Reality

Thomas S. Ray
ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories
2-2 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, 619-02, Japan,,

This work was supported by grants CCR-9204339 and BIR-9300800 from the United States National Science Foundation, a grant from the Digital Equipment Corporation, and by the Santa Fe Institute, Thinking Machines Corp., IBM, and Hughes Aircraft.

This work was conducted while at: Santa Fe Institute, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Suite A, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 87501, USA,; School of Life & Health Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, 19716, USA,; Omar Dengo Foundation, Apartado 1032-2050, San José, Costa Rica,

February 3, 1994

Ray, T. S. 1994. Evolution, complexity, entropy, and artificial reality. Physica D 75: 239-263.


The process of Darwinian evolution by natural selection was inoculated into four artificial worlds (virtual computers). These systems were used for a comparative study of the rates, degrees and patterns of evolutionary optimizations, showing that many features of the evolutionary process are sensitive to the structure of the underlying genetic language. Some specific examples of the evolution of increasingly complex structures are described. In addition a measure of entropy (diversity) of the evolving ecological community over time was used to study the relationship between evolution and entropy.

Thomas S.Ray
Thu Aug 3 13:06:00 JST 1995